Floor Heating

Floor Heating
Floor Heating Floor Heating Floor Heating Floor Heating Floor Heating Floor Heating Floor Heating Floor Heating Floor Heating

System Description

Floor heating is one of the radiant heating methods. The proportion of a radiant component to a convection component in the overall heat transfer from the heating surface is 55% : 45 %. Floor heating differs from a classical convection heating (radiator heating, convector heating) by the method of heat transfer and temperature conditions in rooms.

In convection heating the heater transmits heat to the surrounding air which then transfers heat to the walls. A typical fact of this method is that the air temperature in the room is higher than the wall temperature. A characteristic of air circulation is increased dustiness in the conditioned area, and a high difference in air temperatures between the ceiling and at floor level.

Unlike the convection heating, floor heating is characterized by a uniform temperature distribution and also reduces the need for air circulation which ratifies dustiness in your home. A by product of radiant heating is the heating of your walls, furniture and all objects in your room including the people in the room, which in turn also radiate heat into the room. Optimally, the relative humidity is maintained which is beneficial to the respiratory system. The specific output of floor heating depends, among other effects, also on the temperature of the floor. The surface temperature of the floor must be relatively low, 25 °C to 35 °C, not to exceed the hygienic set value. The maximum temperature of the heating medium is limited to 50 °C due to which floor heating is one of the low-temperature heating methods suitable for the use of energy obtained from low-potential sources.

The ideal method of heating is heating with such a temperature distribution in the room where the temperature in the head area is by about 2 °C to 3 °C lower than the temperature in the feet area. Hot water floor heating is the best method of achieving this. In addition to that, lowering the temperature by 2 °C to 3 °C means saving of energy, required for heating, by 12% to 18%.

 

The uses of hot water floor heating are unlimited. The only requirement is the compensation of heat losses of the heated building without exceeding the maximum permissible temperature of the wear layer.

Options of floor heating application:

  • family houses
  • community buildings
  • sanitary facilities
  • outdoor swimming pools
  • heating of historic buildings
  • heating of churches
  • thawing of pavements and access roads
  • support of biological growth of plants
  • playgrounds, sports halls and tennis courts

Benefits of floor heating:

  • possibility to convert the system to the more advantageous energy source (heat pump, solar collectors, ...)
  • creation of a pleasant and healthy environment
  • low energy demands
  • reduction of operating costs
  • optical expansion of space and accentuation of clean lines of the interior
  • natural moisture content in the air
  • greatly reduced dust swirling
  • allows free choice of the wear layer
  • economical heating of high spaces (high ceilings)
  • optimal comfort and the possibility to control individual rooms according to internal feelings
  • long life of the heating system (minimum corrosion of components of the heating system)
  • self-regulating capacity
  • favourable procurement costs, satisfaction and thermal comfort
  • possibility to be used also for cooling

 

Polybutylene pipes

POLYBUTyLENE pipe

The base of hydronic floor heating is formed by high tech pipe NOXY with polybutylene core  with perfect flexibility. The pipe consists of100% aluminium oxygen barrier. By using this pipe,  the system is totally protected from air lock.

  • Original polybutylene consists of PB 4135
  • Uniform core
  • Polyester reinforcement
  • 100% oxygen barrier

polyethylene PE-RT pipe

Another pipe to use for underfloor heating is the polyethylene pipe.

  • PE-RT core
  • EVOH oxygen barrier                                                                 Polyethylene pipes

rozdeľovač UNIVENTA

The basic assumption in the calculation and design of hot water floor heating is a correct understanding of the purpose, architectural expression, building and structural design and method of operation of the given facility.

The approach is completely different if we want to use this heating method, e.g. in an industrial building, church or family house.

The wear layer of floor covering in residential zones, in terms of hygiene regulations, should not exceed 28 °C. The short-occupied zones (e.g. bathroom, pool area, showers, etc.) are excluded.

When calculating the energy balance of individual buildings it is essential to take into account the requirements for calculating heat losses in special cases, i.e. when building structures are adjacent to the ground, or the building height, respectively the height of heated space is more than required. And last but not least, when it comes to buildings with massive building structures, or with the sources of moisture and excessive glazing surfaces. Similarly, in determining the energy consumption it is important to know the method of operation because intermittent heating occurs in most cases.

The right choice of the floor structure is of great importance. This structure must be, especially in cases of extreme stress, reinforced by structural steel based on a static calculation. Consequently, an adequate method of installation is assumed, both in terms of shaping the heating surfaces, but especially with regard to ensuring the separate expansion units with an application of the most appropriate assembly technology, including the necessary heating and operational tests.

A separate issue is the question of regulation. Therefore, there must be proper interaction between the construction concept of the building and the heating system solution, from the source of heat, through the design of floor heating itself, to a final selection of an adequate measurement, control and automation equipment. Otherwise, the operation of such a building may not show the declared energy and comfort parameters despite the advantages of the hot water floor heating system.

  • In terms of ideal temperature distribution we recommended a maximum length of a heating circuit of 100 lm, extremely up to 120 lm.
  • In determining the input data in other rooms it is necessary to take into account the same medium heating water temperature so that it is not necessary to control each circuit of the manifold separately to a different value.
  • It is advised that, in terms of better regulation and better temperature distribution, each larger room should have its own circuit. If the space has a larger surface area it is necessary to design a proportionately higher number of heating circuits. Small rooms (e.g. bathrooms, toilets ...) may be interconnected into a single circuit.
  • The lengths of heating circuits should be approximately the same. One heating circuit can cover multiple smaller rooms. A different floor temperature is achieved by changing the heating pipes spacing..
  • The size of the heating surface of one circuit must not exceed 25 m. One dimension of the surface is not more than 6 m. Larger heating surfaces must be divided by an expansion joint into expansion units.
  • The pipe passing through an expansion joint must be in a protective pipe (polyethylene ribbed hose) with a minimum length of 50 cm where the expansion joint is in the middle.
  • The spacing of the heating coil is 100 to 300 mm. The outer pipe is placed about 150 mm to 250 mm from the wall.
  • It is preferable to reduce the pipes spacing along the external walls - to create a so-called peripheral zone and thus increase the surface temperature of the floor. This will increase the heat output and reduce the adverse cold radiation of the wall.
  • The thickness and quality of the thermal insulation layer under the heating surface affects the size of the heat flow downwards. If an unheated space is located under the heated space, the heat loss must not exceed 10% of the heat output..
  • Heating pipes are installed with the supply starting at the coolest wall.
  • Place the manifold so that the distance of the heating pipes to the heating surfaces is approximately equal.
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